Ludwig Boltzmann is a 19th-century Austrian physicist best known for the development of statistical mechanics. Boltzmann's entropy formula, S = kB ln W, is a probability equation relating the entropy S of an ideal gas to the quantity W, the number of real microstates corresponding to the gas' macrostate. The Boltzmann formula shows the relationship between entropy and the number of ways the atoms or molecules of a thermodynamic system can be arranged.

Boltzmann is mentioned in the Diebuster episode of Gunbuster Science Lessons during Lal'c and Nono's discussion of Topless.